It is one of the largest and busiest rail networks in the world, transporting over 9 billion passengers and over million tonnes of freight annually. However, other public transport systems, such as buses are often not up to the standards followed in developed countries.
India is heading towards implementation of high-speed rail in the country. About 3. Indian Metros have emerged as the leading destination of medical tourism. Last year, an estimated , foreigners visited India for medical procedures, and the number is increasing at the rate of about 15 percent a year. The Military of India maintains the second largest active duty force in the world after China,  while the Indian Paramilitary Forces , over a million strong, is the second largest paramilitary force in the world.
Combined, the total armed forces of India are 2,, strong, the world's third largest defence force. It also played a leading role in the liberation of Bangladesh in Today, the Indian Army is the world's largest army in total numbers of armed personnel. The Indian Air Force is the fourth largest air force in the world. India is also developing the fifth generation stealth aircraft. The Indian Navy is the world's fifth largest navy. Prithvi and Agni missiles are inducted into the armed forces and form the basis of Indian nuclear second strike capability.
Trishul missile is declared a technology demonstrator. While Nag and Helina missiles are undergoing user trials. Recently, a new weapons system, the beyond visual range air-to-air Astra missile was added to the project. Also India has fielded many modern missiles like the anti ballistic missiles like the AAD and PAD along with submarine launched ballistic missiles for its Arihant class of nuclear ballistic submarines.
The expertise in developing these missiles has helped Indian scientists to contribute to joint weapon development programs like the Brahmos and Barak-II. India is also developing long range cruise missiles similar to the Tomahawk class of missiles called Nirbhay. There are reports of India developing an intercontinental ballistic missile beyond the range of ten thousand kilometers. India has possessed nuclear weapons since , when it did the Pokharan I nuclear tests, and the means to deliver them over long distances.
Politics and Nation
The Indian Armed Forces plays a crucial role in anti-terrorist activities and maintaining law and order in the disputed Kashmir region. India has also participated in several United Nations peace-keeping missions, currently being the largest contributor to UN peace keeping force and is the second-largest contributor to the United Nations Democracy Fund behind the USA. India is one of two ancient civilizations, dating back to at least 5, years, which have stood the test of time and survived against all odds.
Indians invented the numbering system introduced into the West by Arabic mathematicians, Arabic numerals , the concept of zero, logic , geometry, basic algebra, calculus, probability, astronomy etc. Indian culture has spread to foreign lands through wandering traders, philosophers, migration and not through conquest.
India conquered and dominated China culturally for 20 centuries without ever having to send a single soldier across her border. India's film industry produces more feature films than any other. Indian cinema transcended its boundaries from the days of film Awara, a great hit in Russia. Bollywood films are seen in central and west Asia. India has a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual and multi-religious society living together. The subcontinent's long and diverse history has given it a unique eclectic culture. It is often associated with spirituality. Thanks to its history of both indigenous and foreign influences - like the ancient Indian religions Buddhism , Hinduism , Jainism and Sikhism and the ancient Middle East Asian schools of thought Abrahamic - Islam , Christianity , Judaism etc.
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Since Independence, India has regained its more progressive schools of thought, like - democracy , secularism , rule of law, esteem for human rights , rational deductive reasoning, development of Science and Technology , etc. India's diversity forces it to evolve strong foundations of tolerance and pluralism, or face breakup. The Indian public is now also accepting modern western influences in their society and media - and what is emerging is a confluence of its past local culture with the new western culture "Social Globalisation".
Democratic republicanism has its value, more so in a multi-ethnic country like India. However, India is relatively a much younger republic when compared to other major democracies.
The concept of emerging power in international politics and economy
Moreover, it is predicted that in the long run, India being a democracy will provide it an edge over non-democratic [ citation needed ] competitors like China. India has had significant successes with quelling many insurgencies, most prominently the Punjab insurgency Khalistan and the surrender of large sections of insurgent outfits like the United Liberation Front of Asom in and National Liberation Front of Tripura in However the Indian government has acknowledged that there has been a dramatic increase in support for the Maoists Naxalite insurgency in the last decade.
The boom in support appears to have been also boosted by the successes of the nearly year-old Maoist rebellion in Nepal. The maoist insurgency exploits the poor by forced conscription. India's government has recently taken a new stance on the Maoist insurgency, pulling the affected states together to coordinate their response.
It says it will combine improved policing with socio-economic measures to defuse grievances that fuel the Maoist cause. India's growth is impeded by disputes with its neighboring China and Pakistan over historical border and ideological issues and disputes with Bangladesh over water availability and the Farakka Dam. Hence, India's neighbors such as China and Pakistan remain distrustful towards India. It is also occasionally burdened with instability issues within some localised-regions of the subcontinent.
In an effort to reduce political tension and increase economic cooperation, in recent years, India has improved its relations with its neighbors.
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India is not a permanent member of the UNSC , although currently it is one of the four-nations group actively seeking a permanent seat in the council. Thus India lacks the ability to extend its influence or ideas on international events in the way superpowers do. As of , approximately There is consensus among economists that overall poverty in India has declined, the extent of poverty reduction is often debated.
With the rapid economic growth that India is experiencing, it is likely that a significant fraction of the rural population will continue to migrate toward cities, making the issue of urban poverty more significant in the long run. He insisted that the survey was well designed and supervised, and he further defended that just because the numbers did not appear to fit preconceived notions about poverty in India, they should not be dismissed outright. He argues that increasing globalization and investment opportunities have contributed significantly to the reduction of poverty in the country.
India, has shown one of the clearest co-relation trends of globalization with the accelerated rise in per-capita income. Basic infrastructure in India  such as roads, power grid, water, communications infrastructure, housing and education are often below standards, and not catching up with the tune of its economic progress. The India blackouts , which affected millions, was a result of such problems.
The government is, however, improving the infrastructure, such as expanding the freeway and highway system and bringing it up to global standards. Retrogressive government regulations affect many areas. For example, in some states, black outs and power rationing are common due to underinvestment, differing state and local regulations, etc.
It is debatable whether this alone will be sufficient to ease inflationary pressures. The economy is running near or above capacity, and the RBI has noted that production must rise at a pace sufficient to match overall GDP growth if further inflationary pressures are to be avoided. The Indian government has said that much of the rise in inflation recently can be attributed to short-term supply constraints, such as a shortage of key foodstuffs thanks to an erratic summer monsoon.
India can sustain its growth to higher trajectories only by the co-operation of other countries. It is however, steadily combating its energy issues. Unless India finds a quick way to generate jobs, its population of unemployed youths could be a reason for instability. Though, unemployment rate on February was claimed to be around halved to 4.
India's health scenario is dismal with diseases and malnutrition constantly affecting the poorest quarter of the populace. It is estimated that India's economic growth will decline by 0.
To improve the situation, a number of projects such as the building of hospital chains like the Apollo Hospitals , amongst others has laid the foundation for a health system that matches global standards. However, these hospitals are sometimes used by foreigners as a cheap yet effective source of health services and much remains to be done for India's very poor. As per the India census, India's national literacy is only Kerala , a south-Indian state widely recognized as the most well-educated state in India, recorded a literacy rate of The majority of India lies in the tropical climate zone, which may have a negative impact on its agricultural and overall economic development.
Tropical areas generally average enough rainfall, but the timing is often irregular and unpredictable. The rain drops are large and the rate of fall often torrential. One answer to irregular moisture is storage and irrigation, but this is countered in these regions by incredibly high rates of evaporation. In the Agra region of India, for example, rainfall exceeds the needs of local agriculture for only two months in the year, and the excess held in the soil in those wet months dries up in only three weeks.
India has a diverse mix of various religions and races. Though most religions in India have been practising religious tolerance in their histories, the partition and subsequent terrorism had created some degree of uneasiness among some. For instance, a real chunk of India's celebrities - sporting legends, film stars, industrialists, artists, politicians, scientists, head-of-state, etc. The problem of India's social divide is often linked to its centuries-old caste system. The measure is with the motive of helping lower-caste Indians to pursue higher education and thereby elevate their standard of life.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
India as a World Power
India as an emerging superpower. Main article: Demographics of India.
Main article: Politics of India. Main article: Foreign relations of India. Main article: Economy of India.